The question “what is a human being” is immensely vast; looking into its philosophical aspect is another boundless topic for discussion, we do not attempt to give it a complete consideration; it is sufficient to represent it as a multitude of its attributes and oppositions. In this topic it comes in opposition to machines and machine origin. The human against the machine. At the same time we have to abandon any pretensions to create a clear picture; this issue has been mulled over for thousands of years, though the progress is very slow. Yes, there are some landmarks, but no clarity. There is no way of moving forward without trial and error. But certain landmarks are present and we can add some more.
Continue reading “Civilization. Machines. Specialists. Part Six – Human Being”
Machine is a means of fulfillment of a technical operation for production of a commodity or providing a service.
There is a dialectical opposite, the “ends-and-means” dichotomy. A machine is a means; a special means for something. And a human being is a universal purpose (end). So there is the second one – the “universal-special” dichotomy. It is not quite clear, because the ends of one process may serve as means for another; and when there are many processes with reverse causality it is easy to lose one’s bearings.
Machines serve humans. By doing mechanical work, machines free human beings from this mechanical work and thus give them time for freedom: so that humans can realize their freedom of will.
Continue reading “Civilization. Machines. Specialists. Part Five – Ends and Means”
It is known, since the times of Descartes, that animals are machines. Because they fulfill their instinctive programs. You can give an animal a new program, which would suppress the instinct – but this would be only another program. An animal is predictable, except for the cases of breakdown. In fact, it is predictable in cases of breakdown too, though, we have not yet learnt to practically predict it, however, the issue has been resolved in theory.
An animal does not have a free choice. In the process of observing the surrounding world, its instincts switch into play; and the one with the highest priority is carried out. The priorities are written down in advance in a separate program, and this program is a substitute of a free will. It imitates free will as well.
Animals and insects express their will, but they have no free will. In the absence of a reflecting mind, their will is only an integral result of the work of programs and instincts.
Continue reading “Civilization. Machines. Specialists. Part Four – Animals”
A machine is a system for resolving a technical task. A system is a complex of interacting elements.
When a machine is created, it has certain embedded tasks. Machine is a multitude, complex of inertial elements, emerging and stretching from those sometimes long forgotten tasks. This is a continuation of something, moreover, a predefined continuation, a programmed one, it is possible to say. A machine develops out of something and with a certain goal, and this development is not independent.
A usual image of a machine is a power tool. Another popular image is a car or something car-like. A locomotive also looks like one. It is possible to find more various machines in the surrounding realities than there appear to be. For example, an agricultural field is also a machine, and a human being is its operator. You put seeds into this machine, where they are multiplied: a multiplier machine, replicator machine. And animals are also machines. It is possible to turn a person into machine as well. Or a group of people.
Continue reading “Civilization. Machines. Specialists. Part Three – Program”
Machine is a special means for something. Usually for doing some work instead of humans.
Traditionally, machines are regarded as having no consciousness. Neither are they able of general human thinking. They have no ability of conscious reflection, i.e. to turn to their own consciousness. In addition, and due to the absence of reflection, machines have no compassion.
A machine is mechanistic – this looks like a tautologism, but a human being can also turn out to be mechanistic and incapable of compassion. And, generally speaking, major part of a human is a machine. And for the greater part of their lifespan, human beings are machines.
Mechanicalism is a thoughtless functioning. Mechanicalism is a feature of a machine. And of the mechanical part of a human – for example, when walking, a human being does not think how he/she should bend and move the legs. A machine is characterized through the mechanicalism of its work as well.
Source – link
Modern world can be viewed as a world of specialists (experts/professionals). Everything important in the world is done by specialists; while all non-specialists are engaged in ancillary works – for the benefit of the above specialists. It is possible to look at this in another way – as a world ruled by the owners of this world; this is a more traditional point of view. But in order to understand the world within the aspects of its progress, the world owners may be left out of the brackets. As will be shown further, the most overwhelming, deepest flows of the global trends are not directed by the owners. The owners just ride them, and go along with them. The specialists, their mass, are closer to the trend-making basis of civilization, and the world owners turn out to be closer to the superstructure, and bring about only certain current events.
Continue reading “Civilization. Machines. Specialists. Part One – History”