Animals use evaluation to choose an action and launch the mechanism of will. But a choice made by an animal is the very machine calculation. It may seem erroneous, but only due to erroneous input data or erroneous calculation made at the level of an instinct. An animal is not able to make a choice taking into account its internal values, because an animal has no such values, neither has it any mechanism of choosing between these values or generating them. Only humans are able to create a hierarchy of values and draw new values out of existing ones. These values may be called moral values. Moral is a subset of culture.
People have everything animals do. But there is also a moral and value superstructure. The process of upbringing works through this moral and value superstructure. If the superstructure is absent, only the process of animal training is possible. In general, being a mechanical process, the animal training is possible at any time. The approximate difference is that in the process of upbringing, a person understands and acts, and in the animal training, they do not understand what they are doing. Upbringing is only for people. Animal training is for anyone. Human being is multidimensional, while an animal has only one dimension.
Due to the absence of the moral and value superstructure, an animal cannot, for example, think how a scoundrel is different from a rascal, because both of those are moral categories. And if it tries to – it will confuse morals with the law. An insect has no understanding of concepts. By the way, these two points are the most convenient to tell between thinking persons and human-machines.