Quality is the fundamental of universality.
Variability is the fundamental of specialization.
Specialization is a key to success, but only in a world of competing specializations. For example, there are no sufficient resources to build enough tanks and airplanes. Then someone builds tanks, and someone – airplanes. This is creation of special military branches, or – a cognate word – military breeds. And this is true not only for military forces. The same goes for civil domains, for which relevant breeds of specialists are developed.
Any live species, including man, has been initially specialized through adaptation to the initial conditions of existence in the nature. But the problem with human beings – is that these conditions no longer exist. People have run away from the African savannah, but still have not reached a stable civilization.
It was a universal human being who populated the lands. And then it adapted to these lands. And after adaptation, moreover a long lasting one, it is impossible to get the lost qualities back. An Eskimo will not be able to adapt to life in Africa. Only by way of gradual population with adaptation, a very slow one. Not only is it difficult for an Eskimo to return from the North, but also for a man living in a dying civilization to return to life.
Any universalizatioin is considered taking into account specialization of species of a higher order; universalization is the very specialization of species; further on, specialization is considered as the loss of this initial universalization in favor of a new specialization, a lesser and acquired one. I.e. specialization means not the initial natural specialization (race), but the newly acquired specialization (breed). In the nature, these are the evolution cycles: a characteristics appears – then it gets expanded around the population, a new characteristics appears – it gets expanded as well, while the old one may disappear.
In a natural environment, a wild cow was able to run, jump, and give milk. This is a universal set. The race. A domestic cow has lost it, and it can no longer run or jump. Universalization has been lost. But it is now giving more milk – and this has become its specialization. The breed.
In the late XVIII century, an ugly sheep was born at a farm, it had very short legs. This sheep could not run or jump. But that was its advantage. It was not able to jump over the fence, and it did not need any shepherd-dog. A drawback turned out to be an advantage; and for the sheep as well, it got a huge reproductive success. It was multiplied to populations of millions. (Ancon mutation of sheep). But there remains an issue – this sheep can only live in civilization. This is no wild mouflon scrambling among rocks. Essentially, such a sheep is abnormal. But it is civilized, this abnormality is useful in civilization.
According to this scheme, the nation-civilization, as a selectionist, selects people that seem fit for life in civilization. But if short legs turned out to be a positive factor among sheep, it was a down-sized brain that became an advantage for people in the final run. It is very useful for industrial mass production. No, civilization was by no means selecting people for down-sized brain – civilization was selecting people for their merits – it was selecting specialists – but it turned out that specialists and their descendants have a down-sized brain. The situation is almost the same as with the sheep; though with people it is a bit more complicated. And the sheep was also a specialist – for not running away.
Selectionists had nothing against sheep’s long legs, they wanted the sheep not to run away beyond the fence. The “selectionists” had nothing against universal human intellect, they wanted intellectual advantages, but there was no raw material to create these advantages. Variability-specialization is created out of quality.
Intellectual advantages were created out of parts of the universal intellect.
The same is true for sheep’s legs and human brain – they are limited, because this way it is more convenient for the civilizational hyper-machine. Degeneration of man is a side effect, nobody wants degeneration, just as selectionists do not want any shortcomings in quality.
Civilization is a selectionist. This is not people who adapt, but the system in line with its algorithms selects certain people and provides them with a good, one can say, “adapted” life. And these select people have priority in reproduction. It is difficult to say that specialists adapt. No, they have been born with special parameters. And the system, which is a big social machine, has decided that they are adapted – to itself. The system produces demand for such people. And because they are in demand, they are rewarded with success.
A man has turned into a commodity and considers his/her life as a capital, which is to be smartly invested. If such a person succeeds, his/her life has a sense, if not – he/she is a failure. His/her value is determined by demand, and not by his/her human merits. (c) Erich Fromm
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